Timeline of Viols in France in the Sixteenth Century

This page presents a timeline of evidence of the appearance of viols in sixteenth-century France (with a few exceptions from the first decades of the seventeenth century), including activities of schools, appearances at court and religious spectacles, and appearances in the theater. It will further include dates of important publications about the viol and viols listed in inventories produced after the death of luthiers and musicians.

1498

Cesare Borgia asked Ercole d’Este to lend him his “violas arcu pulsantes” (viols played with a bow) for a diplomatic mission to France, where such instruments, he claims, were highly regarded.1Letter from Cesare Borgia to Ercole d’Este, Rome 3 September 1498.

Paris

In a copy of the l’état des officiers domestiques of François d’Angoulême, the future François I, an organist, named Nicole Cueil, and four “violeurs,” named Jean Baron, Nicole Baron, Roger Cauche and Guillaume Bonville, are mentioned.2BnF ms. français 21478, fol. 39. Christelle Cazaux argues that their presence in the Chapelle, which during this period had no instrumentalists except organists, suggests that the copyist (the manuscript is not an original) was incorrect and that these four were in fact singers.3Christelle Cazaux, La musique à la cour de François Ier (Paris: École Nationale des Chartes, 2002), 140 and 238, n. 8. While supporting evidence proves that these four were singers, it remains possible that they also played viols.

1514
1520

Balinghem

The Field of the Cloth of Gold was a summit from 7 to 24 June 1520 between King Henry VIII of England and and King François I of France. François I and Catherine of Aragon, having finished their repast, came into the hall. Dancing commenced to the sound of a tabour, pipe, and viol; the first dance is performed by the Lady Mary with a French nobleman.4“Venice: May 1520, 21-25,” in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 3, 1520-1526, ed. Rawdon Brown (London, 1869), pp. 14-34. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/venice/vol3/pp14-34 [accessed 9 July 2020].
Possibly referencing a medieval vièlle.

Paris

Jean de Gourmont the Elder (c. 1483– c. 1552), in his L’Adoration des bergers (c. 1525), paints the earliest known image of a viol in France. The painter, printmaker, and engraver was born in Normandy but worked in Paris and later in Lyon.

c. 1525
1529

Cambrai

A four-part viol consort in the household of King François I performs during the Cambrai conference of 1529. On 10 August, Marguerite of Austria was visited at her hôtel by “quatre jouheurs de vyole du roi de France.”5Edmond vander Straeten, La musique aux Pays-Bas avant le XIXe siècle. Documents inédits et annotés. Compositeurs, virtuoses, théoriciens, luthiers; opéras, motets, airs nationaux, académies, maitrises, livres, portraits, etc.;  avec planches de musique et table alphabétique, vol. 4 (Brussels: G.–A. van Trigt, 1878), vol. 2, 189.

Rouen

On 6 February, the entrée of Éléonore d’Autriche and the Dauphin into Rouen was organized around the theme of “Antiquity.” The third chariot witnessed by the couple included Apollo carrying a harp and the nine muses, each carrying one or more symbols. Erato, the patron of lyric and erotic poetry or hymns, held “une violle et ung compas.”6André Pottier, ed. Les entrées de Eléonore d’Autriche, reine de France et du Dauphin, fils de François Ier, dans la ville de Rouen, au mois de février 1531 (1532 suivant la supputation actuelle). (Rouen: Henry Boissel, 1866), fol. b iiii-b v.

1532
1532

Nantes/Poitiers

Gilles Kernela was engaged by le corps de ville to travel from Nantes to Poitiers to commission Jean Bouchet, who had organized the entrée into Poitiers for François I in 1519, in developing a festival plan. Bouchet produced, for the sum of 3 écus soleil à 43 sous pièce, a plan for the festival. Kernela hired “de trois tambourins, d’un rebec, d’une viole et de deux fifres” from Poitiers.7Henri Clouzot, L’Ancien théâtre en Poitou (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1901), 32–33.

Bourges

A production of a mystery play entitled Actes des Apôtres in Bourges included a float that represented heaven, on which were positioned “deux autres petits ang ses, chantant hymnes et cantiques, qui s’accordoient avec des jouers de flustes, harpes, luths, rebecs et violes, qui marchoient à l’entour du Paradis.”8Howard Mayer Brown, Music in the French Secular Theater, 1400–1550. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963), 67–68.
Possibly referencing a medieval vièlle.

1536
1543

Paris

François I created the “musique de la chambre” division of the royal household, independent from the musicians in the service of the chapelle.

Marseille

Barthelemé de la Crous opened a secular school for “viols, lutes and other instruments,” which was subsidized by the city: “Sur la requeste faite audict conseil par Barthélemy de la Crous, faiseur de violes, de lutz et autres instruments, tendant afin que, attendu qu’il est venu nouvellement en la présente ville, et qu’il a bon voulloir de monstrer et enseigner les enfancs de toucher et sonner les dits instruments, et qu’il n’y a point en ceste ville d’autre escoullier que revient l’honneur d’enseigner cette science, et garde encore que les enfans, par ainsi, ne se desbauchent en aultres mauvais usages, lui être pourveu par ladite ville de quelque petite maison et lieu convenable pour monstrer les dicts enfancs et le dict suppléant fera son devoir de mieulx en mieulx.”9Archives municipales, série B. B., cited in André Gouirand, La musique en Provence: et le Conservatoire de Marseille (Marseille: P. Ruat, 1908), 38.
and “Après lecture de la dicte requête faite audit conseil, Jéhan Blancard, premier consul suivant la commission à luy donnée et à ses compaignons de trouver lougis au faiseur de violes, auronts loué la maison de Isabeau Descalis pour six mois au prix de quinze florins. . . A plu audict conseil réfformer que la dite somme soit payée des derniers communaux par le trésorier général de la ville.”10Délibération du 4 novembre 1545 et 8 janvier 1546. Archives municipales, série B. B., cited in André Gouirand, La musique en Provence: et le Conservatoire de Marseille (Marseille: P. Ruat, 1908), 38–39.

1546
1547

Paris

In the first year of his reign, Henri II adds two “joueurs de violes” to the the ranks of his musique de Chambre. He reassigns Jean Bellac and Pierre de Champgilbert, alias Pierre d’Auxerre, two players of the violon in l’Écurie, as players of violes in the Chambre.11Christelle Cazaux, La musique à la cour de François Ier (Paris: École Nationale des Chartes, 2002), 123 and 339–40.

Marseille

Viol players in Marseilles, it was noted, have dethroned minstrels, who are forced to disperse to neighboring villages: “Déjà, les ménétriers détrônés par les joueurs de viole sont forcés de se disperser dans les villages voisins pour gagner leur vie. C’est ainsi que l’usage du tambourin s’est perpétué dans la campagne provençale.”12Acte du 18 janvier 1548. Me de Laget. Cited in André Gouirand, La musique en Provence: et le Conservatoire de Marseille (Marseille: P. Ruat, 1908), 34.

1548
1548

Lyon

For Catherine de’ Medici and Henri II’s entrée, the Florentine community of Lyon contributed a performance of Cardinal Bibbiena’s Calandria, for which they summoned a famous theater troupe from Florence. During the play, a song is performed “by a single voice accompanied by five lutes, a violone da gamba & a spinet.” Later another song is sung “to the sound of two spinets, four transverse flutes, & four violoni da gamba.”13La magnifica et triumphale entrata del christianiss Re di Francia Henrico secondo di questo nome satta nella nobile & antiqua città di Lyone à luy… alli 21. di septemb. 1548 (Lyone: G. Rouillio, 1549): fol. O2v “cantati in Musica da una voce sola accompagnata da cinque liuti, un violone da gamba & una spinetta.”; fol. P1v. “al suono di due spinette, quatro flauti traversi & quatro violoni da gamba la seguente Canzona.”

Binche

In August, Mary of Hungary arranged a festival at Binche to celebrate the visit of Charles V and his son Philip. A cortège of gods, goddesses, and nymphs were accompanied by four “vihuelas de arco.”14Daniel Heartz, “Un Divertissement de Palais pour Charles Quinte à Binche,” in Les Fêtes de la Renaissance II (Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1960), 330.

1549
1551

Paris

On 23 March an inventory after the death of Philippe de la Canessière, facteur d’instruments, lists: “Item deux grand viollons garniz de leurs estuitz, une violle et ung petit viollon garniz de leurs archetz prisez ensemble L s.t..”15François Lesure, “La facture instrumentale à Paris au seizième siècle,” The Galpin Society Journal 7 (April, 1954), 22; Archive nationales, Minutier central des notaires de Paris, Document IV (IX, 133).

Paris

On 27 November, François Bonnin or Bonvin, age 15, son of Antoine Bonnin or Bonvin, enters into an agreement to become a servant and apprentice at the shop of Denis Viger, “faiseur de guitares, luths, violes et autres instruments,” on the rue Saint-Victor. Viger agrees to provide Bonvin with food and a salary.16Archives nationales, Minutes. 1553, 3 avril – 1554, 21 mars (MC/ET/XXXIII/38): “Mise en serviteur et apprenti, pour trois ans, par Robert Rebours, seigneur de ‘Ballouer et Rezelles en partie’, demeurant aux faubourgs Saint-Victor, de François Bonnin ou Bonvin, âgé de quinze ans, fils d’Antoine Bonnin ou Bonvin, chez Denis Viger, faiseur de guitares, luths, violes et autres instruments, rue Saint-Victor, qui lui fournira le vivre, etc., et recevra 13 l. 16 s. t., dont 46 s. t. comptant, autant dans un an, le double à la fin de la deuxième année et le reste au départ de l’apprenti.”

1553
1554

Paris

On 02 October, Claude Gervaise publishes the second edition of his Premier livre de violle contenant dix chansons avec l’introduction d’accorder et apliquer les doigts selon la manière qu’on a accoutumé de jouer, le tout de la composition de Claude Gervaise with the widow of Pierre Attaingnant.

Paris

On 06 September, Michel Dales, a musician living on rue Charretière near the Hôtel de Coqueret in the house called the Green Trellis, entered into a contract with Pierre Nepveu, pedagogue at the university, living on rue Saint-Nicolas-de-Chardonneret. For a payment of 12 pounds, Dales agrees to teach Nepveu to sing music and play the viol in his home for one hour every day beginning on 07 September for a period of four months.17Archives nationales, Minutes. 1568, août – 1568, décembre (MC/ET/XVII/51): “Michel Dales, musicien demeurant à Paris, rue Charretière près l’hôtel de Coqueret, en la maison appelée le Treillis vert, promet à Pierre Nepveu, pédagogue en l’université, demeurant rue Saint-Nicolas-de-Chardonneret, de lui montrer et enseigner à chanter en musique et à jouer de la violle en se rendant chez lui une heure tous les jours à partir de demain et durant quatre mois, moyennant 12 livres.”

1555
1556

Lyon

On 28 April, Philibert Jambe de Fer published his L’Épitome musical des tons, sons et accordz, es voix humaines, fleustes d’Alleman, flesustes à neuf trous, violes, & violons in Lyon.

Poitiers

On 13 May, Enguilbert de Marnef, the author and publisher of the Discours non plus mélancholique que divers de choses mesmement qui appartient à notre France, claims that the viol is an instrument “ainsi demeure la vielle pour les aveugles, le rebec et viole pour les ménétriers, le luc et guiterne pour les musiciens.”18Discours non plus mélancoliques que divers de choses mesmement qui appartiennent à notre France, et à la fin la manière de bien et justement entoucher les lucs et les guiternes, et à la fin la manière de bien et justement entoucher les lucs et les guiternes (Poitiers: Enguilbert de Marnes, 1556), 95–96.
Possibly referencing a medieval vièlle.

1556
1556

Paris

On 02 June, an inventory after the death of Yves Mesnager, facteur d’instruments, lists: “Item une bassecontre de violle de deux tailles non parfaictes prisez ensemble Xl. tz.”19François Lesure, “La facture instrumentale à Paris au seizième siècle.” The Galpin Society Journal Vol.7 (April, 1954), 24; Archive nationales, Minutier central des notaires de Paris, Document VI (VI, 72).

Paris

Accounts list a payment to Catherine de’ Medici’s Italian valets de chambre, Gerin de Mantoue, to travel to Ferrara to collect six violles.20F-Pan KK 118, fol. 36v. Becuase the entry specifies that he instruments were delivered to the “violons” in Catherine de Medici’s service, Jeanice Brooks suggests that these were actually violins, possibly violins from the Cremonese maker Andrea Amati, from who Charles IX and Catherine de’ Medici ordered many instruments from the violin family. Because Amati and other Cremonese luthiers made both viols and violins and because many instrumentalists at the French court played multiple instruments, it remains inconclusive if these were viols or violins.

1556
1557

Paris

On 20 September, an inventory created after the death of Nicolas Robillard, joueur d’instruments, lists: “Premièrement une double basse contre de viole prisé IX L IIIs.” and “Item deux petites basses contres, la plus petite garnye de son estuy prisés ensemble Xl. Xs.”21François Lesure, “La facture instrumentale à Paris au seizième siècle,” The Galpin Society Journal 7 (April, 1954), 25; Archive nationales, Minutier central des notaires de Paris, Document VIII (III, 121).

Paris

In Paris, at the marriage of the future François II to Mary Stuart on 19 April, instruments included a number of “Trompettes, Clairons, Haulxbois, Flageolz, Violes, Violons, Cistres, Guiternes & autres infinis.”22Discours du grand et magnifique triumphe faict au mariage de… François de Vallois, roy-dauphin… et de… Marie d’Esteuart, roine d’Escosse (Paris: A Brière, 1558), fol. Aiv r.

1558
c. 1559

Paris

In an undated letter from a servant of the King Henri II to Queen Catherine de’ Medici about the death of her husband, the author claims that the king took great delight in hearing the psalms sung to the accompaniment of “lutes, viols, spinets, and flutes.”23“Coppie des lettres envoyées a la Royne-Mère un sien serviteur, après la mort du feu Roy Henri II,” in Archives curieuses de l’histoire de France depuis Louis XI jusqu’à Louis XVIII, ou Collection de pièces rares et intéressantes. 
Publiées d’après les textes conservés à la Bibliothèque Royale, et accompagnées de notices et d’éclaircissemens; ouvrage destiné à servir de complément aus collections Guizot, Buchon, Petitot et Leber
, série 1, vol. 3 (Paris: Beauvais, 1835): 356: “à chanter lesdicts psalmes avec lucs, viols, espinettes, fleustes, les voix de ses chantres parmi.”

Berne

On 12 December, during a visit of the Duke of Longueville to Berne, music was provided by the viols of Lausanne.24Berchtold Friedrich von Haller, Bern in seinen Rathsmanualen, 1465-1565, vol. 2 (Berne: K.J. Wyss, 1900–1902), 282–283: “Man hat ouch Sytenspyl mit den vyolen von Losanna harbeischriben, denne ouch Meister Jehan Plateanum, dem hofgsind allhie ze predigen.”

1561
1573

Paris

Three viols are depicted on a tapestry commemorating a ball held by Catherine de’ Medici at the Tuileries Palace in honor of Polish envoys visiting to present the throne of Poland to her son Henry, Duke of Anjou, the future Henry III of France.

Venice

Accounts for Henri III’s expenses while visiting Venice between 17–27 July includes a gift of 40 écus to “the German Martha and her husband, who were twice sent for to sing and play the lute and viol.”25BnF ms. français 3321, fol. 20v: “la Marthe Thudesque, et son mary qui ont esté mandez deux foix pour chanter et sonner du luth et de la viole.”

1574
1578

Poitiers

The “viols et violons de Poitiers” provided incidental music for a tragedy, a comedy, and a farce performed by les Enfants de la ville (an umbrella association of festive societies) in the la Halle neuve. The performances were attended by “plusieurs gentilshommes, damoiselles et autres estrangers.”26Clouzot, Henri. L’Ancien théâtre en Poitou (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1901), 56.

Paris

The Ballet comique de la reine is performed on 13 February at the direction of the dowager queen Catherine de’ Medici as part of the wedding celebrations for the Duke de Joyeuse and Marguerite de Vaudemon, Queen Louise of Lorraine’s sister. Choreographed by the Italian dancer and violinist Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx, a viol were possibly featured by a performer on the fountain, by a triton, or on the chariot of Minerva.

1581
1584

Paris

Following the path forged by his colleagues Jean Bellac and Pierre d’Auxerre in 1547, Jean Fourcade, after serving François I as a “joueur d’instruments” in the Écurie for close to forty years (1529–1570), is transferred to serve as a “violiste de la Chambre.”27Archives nationales KK 139, fol. 33v. and Christelle Cazaux, La musique à la cour de François Ier (Paris: École Nationale des Chartes, 2002), 123.

Paris

On 01 October, an inventory created after the death of Claude Denis, facteur d’instruments, documents an inventory that includes bows, strings, and viols: “Item une basse contre de Bresse prisé III esc. sol.”; “Item I double basse contre de viole de Cambray prisé III esc. sol.”; “Item 77 archetz prisez 1 esc. sol.”; “Item 2 vieulx dessus de violles prisez X s.”; “Item 15 paquetz de cordes de Florence prisez IIII esc. sol.”; “Item 21 paquet de cordes de Siennes III esc. XL s.”; “Item 6 paquetz de vieulx reste de corde prisez L s.”; and “Item en cordes de violles, tant grosses que menues prisé ens. XL s.”28François Lesure, “La facture instrumentale à Paris au seizième siècle,” The Galpin Society Journal 7 (April, 1954), 38; Archive nationales, Minutier central des notaires de Paris, Document XXII (III, 194).

1587
1589

Basel

On 03 November, Samuel Mareschall publishes his Porta Musices in Basel.

Paris

Marin Mersenne recounts an anecdote about the viol player Granier, who held an official post in the household of Marguerite of Valois, Queen of Navarre. Granier, playing the bass viol, enclosed a young page inside his instrument. The page sang the soprano part while Granier sang the tenor and played the bass line on his viol.29Marin Mersenne, Harmonie universelle, contenant la théorie et la pratique de la musique, Part II, livre IV (Paris: Pierre Ballard, 1636–1637), 192.
This incident must have occurred sometime after the assassination of Henri III in 1589, at which point Marguerite’s husband, Henri de Navarre, ascended to the throne as Henri IV. Later Granier was second master of the King’s chapel and died around 1600.

c. 1589–1600
c. 1589–c. 1610

Paris

After the death of Jean-Antoine de Baïf in 1589, Jacques Mauduit continued to offer concerts in the tradition of the Académie de Poésie et de Musique, but he began to focus increasingly on instrumental music. The Huguenot poet Agrippa d’Aubigné, a self-professed member of the Académie de Poésie et de Musique, claims to have heard “un excellent consert de guitare, de douze violes, quatre espinettes, quatre luts, deux pandores & deux tuorbes.”30Theodore Agrippa d’Aubigné, Oeuvres complètes de Théodore Agrippa d’Aubigné: Introduction. Sa vie à ses enfants. Testament de Th. Agrippa d’Aubigné. Lettres, ed. by Eug. Réaume and F. de Caussade, vol. 1 (Paris: Alphonse Lemerre, 1873), 465. This undated letter was sent from d’Aubigné to Odet de la Noue. Sauval claims that Mauduit’s concerts ordinarily had between sixty to eighty people, sometimes as many as 120.31Henri Sauval, Histoire et recherches des antiquités de la ville de Paris, vol. 2 (Paris: Charles Moette and Jacques Chardon, 1724), 493.

Paris

On 06 May, an inventory after the death of Pierre Aubry, facteur d’instruments, lists: “Premyerement, une basse violle prisée III esc. sol.”32François Lesure, “La facture instrumentale à Paris au seizième siècle,” The Galpin Society Journal 7 (April, 1954), 42; Archive nationales, Minutier central des notaires de Paris, Document XXIV (XCI, 139).

1596
1598

Paris

In March, two theatrical companies—one represented by Valleran Le Conte and called comédiens du roi and another lead by Adrien Talmy and called the compagnie de comédiens français—signed a three-year contract “to perform together comedies, tragedies, tragicomedies, pastorales, and other works agreed upon in this city of Paris, as well as elsewhere in this kingdom of France.” According to the terms of the contract the troupes signed, Le Conte was to provide costumed, stage properties, and a chest of viols with which his viol quintet would perform entr’actes. On 22 March, Fiacre Boucher leased from the Confrères a loge des dépendances, a balcony from which the viol consort would perform.33John S. Powell, Music and Theater in France, 1600–1680 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 9; “Contrat de Société entre Valleran Le Conte et sa Troupe du Roi et Adrien Talmy et sa Compagnie de Comediens Francais” 16 March 1598, reproduced in S. Wilma Deierkauf-Holsboer, Vie d’Alexandre Hardy, poète du roi: quarante-deux documents inédits (Philadelphia: [American Philosophical Society], 1947), 171–172, app. 1.

Paris

In March, Valleran Le Conte, leader of the comédiens du roi, contracted to teach the fifteen-year-old Nicolas Gasteau “the science of acting . . . to learn to play the spinet, the viol, and to sing music.” The contract was dissolved five weeks later.34John S. Powell, Music and Theater in France, 1600–1680 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 10; “Acte d’apprentissage de Nicolas Gasteau,” 08 March 1599, reproduced in S. Wilma Deierkauf-Holsboer, Vie d’Alexandre Hardy, poète du roi: quarante-deux documents inédits (Philadelphia: [American Philosophical Society], 1947), 179, app. 9.

1599
1599

Saint-Marxient

A company run by Adrien Talmy performed “plusieurs histoires, tragédies et comédies avecq Musicque et voix, violes et regales.”35Raymond Lebègue, “Le Répertoire d’une troupe française à la fin du XVIe siècle,” Revue d’histoire du théâtre 1 (1948–1949): 16–18.

Paris

On 03 May, Valleran Le Conte, in order to pay his actors, was forced to sell his chest of viols, his wardrobe of costumes, and eleven painted backdrops to one of his actors.36John S. Powell, Music and Theater in France, 1600–1680 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 11; “Accord entre Valleran Le Conte et Estienne de Ruffin au sujet du reglement de ses gages,” 03 May 1606, reproduced in S. Wilma Deierkauf-Holsboer, Vie d’Alexandre Hardy, poète du roi: quarante-deux documents inédits (Philadelphia: [American Philosophical Society], 1947), 188–189, app. 19.

1606
1607

Paris

On 01 December, Valleran Le Conte founded a new company with Nicolas Gasteau, Estienne de Ruffin, Hugues Gueru (later known as “Gaultier-Garguille”), Savinian Bony, Loys Nyssier, Jullien Doielles, Gasteau de Rachel Trépeau, and an unnamed second female actress. Le Conte furnished “the costumes, viols, and backdrops suitable for the aforesaid performances of comedies, tragicomedies, pastorales, and other plays.”37John S. Powell, Music and Theater in France, 1600–1680 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 11, n. 37; “Acte d’association d’une troupe de comediens du Roi sous la direction de Valleran Le Conte,” 01 December 1607, reproduced in S. Wilma Deierkauf-Holsboer, Vie d’Alexandre Hardy, poète du roi: quarante-deux documents inédits (Philadelphia: [American Philosophical Society], 1947), 190–191, app. 21.

Paris

On 08 April, Jacques Le Messier, the father of Pierre le Messier (later known as Bellerose), contracted an apprenticeship for his son, which included viol lessons, from Valleran Le Conte, leader of the comédiens du roi. In addition to providing him lodging, food, and clothing, Le Conte promised to teach him “la science et industrie de représenter tous trage-comédyes, comédyes, pastoralles et autres jeux, ensemble à jouer de la violle.”38“Acte d’apprentissage de Pierre le Messier,” 08 April 1609, Archives nationales, Minutes. 1609 (MC/ET/XV/19), reproduced in S. Wilma Deierkauf-Holsboer, Vie d’Alexandre Hardy, poète du roi: quarante-deux documents inédits (Philadelphia: [American Philosophical Society], 1947), 193–195, app. 24.

1609
c. 1609–1610

Paris

Large viols are depicted in engravings commemorating the state funeral of Duke Charles III of Lorraine.

Paris

On 16 September, Louis XIII returned to Paris from a trip to Brittany. For his city entrée, near the porte S. Jacques, 120–140 musicians, including voices, luths, and viols, performed an Ode composed by Jacques Mauduit.39Théodore Godefroy,Le Cérémonial françois (Paris: S. et G. Cramoisy, 1649), 971–71.

1614
1617

Paris

On 29 January, La Deliverance de Renaud, a ballet de cour, is performed for Louis XIII, who also dances as un démon du feu and Godefroy de Bouillon. A concert conducted by Jacques Mauduit employs 64 singers, 28 violists, and 14 lutenists.40Étienne Durand, Discours au vray du ballet dansé par le Roy, le dimanche XXIXe jour de janvier. M. VIc. XVII . Avec les desseins, tant des machines & apparences differentes, que de tous les habits des masques. (Paris: Pierre Ballard, 1617), Aiii.


A large bowed bass performs at a royal funeral in 1611